The Config API, located under the bonobo.config namespace, contains all the tools you need to create configurable transformations, either class-based or function-based.

class Configurable(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: object

Generic class for configurable objects. Configurable objects have a dictionary of “options” descriptors that defines the configuration schema of the type.

Custom instance builder. If not all options are fulfilled, will return a PartiallyConfigured instance which is just a functools.partial object that behaves like a Configurable instance.

The special _final argument can be used to force final instance to be created, or an error raised if options are missing.

  • args

  • _final – bool

  • kwargs


Configurable or PartiallyConfigured

class Container[source]

Bases: dict

get(k[, d]) → D[k] if k in D, else d. d defaults to None.[source]
class ContextProcessor(func)[source]

Bases: bonobo.config.options.Option

A ContextProcessor is a kind of transformation decorator that can setup and teardown a transformation and runtime related dependencies, at the execution level.

It works like a yielding context manager, and is the recommended way to setup and teardown objects you’ll need in the context of one execution. It’s the way to overcome the stateless nature of transformations.

The yielded values will be passed as positional arguments to the next context processors (order does matter), and finally to the __call__ method of the transformation.

Warning: this may change for a similar but simpler implementation, don’t rely too much on it (yet).


>>> from bonobo.config import Configurable
>>> from bonobo.util import ValueHolder
>>> class Counter(Configurable):
...     @ContextProcessor
...     def counter(self, context):
...         yield ValueHolder(0)
...     def __call__(self, counter, *args, **kwargs):
...         counter += 1
...         yield counter.get()
class Exclusive(wrapped)[source]

Bases: contextlib.ContextDecorator

Decorator and context manager used to require exclusive usage of an object, most probably a service. It’s usefull for example if call order matters on a service implementation (think of an http api that requires a nonce or version parameter …).


>>> def handler(some_service):
...     with Exclusive(some_service):
...         some_service.call_1()
...         some_service.call_2()
...         some_service.call_3()

This will ensure that nobody else is using the same service while in the “with” block, using a lock primitive to ensure that.

class Method(*, default=None, required=True, positional=True, __doc__=None)[source]

Bases: bonobo.config.options.Option

A Method is a special callable-valued option, that can be used in three different ways (but for same purpose).

  • Like a normal option, the value can be provided to the Configurable constructor.

    >>> from bonobo.config import Configurable, Method
    >>> class MethodExample(Configurable):
    ...     handler = Method()
    >>> example1 = MethodExample(handler=str.upper)
  • It can be used by a child class that overrides the Method with a normal method.

    >>> class ChildMethodExample(MethodExample):
    ...     def handler(self, s: str):
    ...         return s.upper()
    >>> example2 = ChildMethodExample()
  • Finally, it also enables the class to be used as a decorator, to generate a subclass providing the Method a value.

    >>> @MethodExample
    ... def OtherChildMethodExample(s):
    ...     return s.upper()
    >>> example3 = OtherChildMethodExample()

It’s possible to pass a default implementation to a Method by calling it, making it suitable to use as a decorator.

>>> class MethodExampleWithDefault(Configurable):
...     @Method()
...     def handler(self):
...         pass
class Option(type=None, *, required=True, positional=False, default=None, __doc__=None)[source]

Bases: object

An Option is a descriptor for Configurable’s parameters.


Option type allows to provide a callable used to cast, clean or validate the option value. If not provided, or None, the option’s value will be the exact value user provided.

(default: None)


If an option is required, an error will be raised if no value is provided (at runtime). If it is not, option will have the default value if user does not override it at runtime.

Ignored if a default is provided, meaning that the option cannot be required.

(default: True)


If this is true, it’ll be possible to provide the option value as a positional argument. Otherwise, it must be provided as a keyword argument.

(default: False)


Default value for non-required options.

(default: None)


from bonobo.config import Configurable, Option

class Example(Configurable):
    title = Option(str, required=True, positional=True)
    keyword = Option(str, default='foo')

    def __call__(self, s):
        return self.title + ': ' + s + ' (' + self.keyword + ')'

example = Example('hello', keyword='bar')
class Service(name, __doc__=None)[source]

Bases: bonobo.config.options.Option

A Service is a special kind of option defining a dependency to something that will be resolved at runtime, using an identifier. For example, you can create a Configurable that has a “database” Service in its attribute, meaning that you’ll define which database to use, by name, when creating the instance of this class, then provide an implementation when running the graph using a strategy.


import bonobo

class QueryExtractor(bonobo.Configurable):
    database = bonobo.Service(default='sqlalchemy.engine.default')

graph = bonobo.Graph(

if __name__ == '__main__':
    engine = create_engine('... dsn ...'), services={
        'sqlalchemy.engine.secondary': engine

The main goal is not to tie transformations to actual dependencies, so the same can be run in different contexts (stages like preprod, prod, or tenants like client1, client2, or anything you want).


Service name will be used to retrieve the implementation at runtime.

resolve(inst, services)[source]
create_container(services=None, factory=<class ''>)[source]

Create a container with reasonable default service implementations for commonly use, standard-named, services.

Services: - fs defaults to a fs2 instance based on current working directory - `http`defaults to requests